Stability, viscosity and thermal conductivity of ZnO-water-ethylene glycol nanofluids: An experimental investigation

Abstract The use of nanoparticles enhances heat transfer of the nanofluid as it improves the thermal conductivity. In this paper, the addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles to ethylene glycol + water (EG: 75% and 25%) blend was tested. Different mass fractions of ZnO (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) were added to the base liquid. Nano-ZnO was mixed with EG/water blend using an ultrasonic shaker. The stability, viscosity, density and thermal conductivity of different samples were tested and analyzed. It was found that there is a clear increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to the base fluid, which reaches 133%. The density of the nanofluid when adding 2.0% ZnO was affected in a limited way, as the increase in density did not exceed 0.085%. Also, it was found that the increase in the viscosity of the ZnO nanofluid suspension for the same addition percentage reaches 2.18%. The nanofluid stability was evaluated using zeta potential. The results showed that the prepared samples stability were high. The most stable nanofluid samples are 0.1% and 0.5%, respectively. The least stable nanofluid sample was 2.0% compared to the other samples. However, it is still very stable, reaching 48 mV. Furthermore, a camera-imaging method was used to confirm stabilization.

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